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On linux there are 2 linux images when I only have fedora 17 installed?

asked 2012-08-16 16:39:51 -0500

argendev gravatar image

updated 2012-08-17 02:44:51 -0500

hhlp gravatar image

Sorry if this is obvious, because I am a noob at linux. But I downloaded and installed fedora 17 64bit. I turned off my computer then when I turned it back on I did the software updates. Then the next time I restart my computer there is an option for Fedora Linux, which is second and for another Fedora that is Fedora.-3.5.1-1.fc17.x86_64 or something along those lines. Then when I do grub2-mkconfig > /boot/grub2/grub.cfg

My output is:

Found linux image:
/boot/vmlinuz-3.5.1-1.fc17.x86_64
Found initrd image:
/boot/initramfs-3.5.1-1.fc17.x86_64.img
Found linux image:
/boot/vmlinuz-3.3.4-5.fc17.x86_64
Found initrd image:
/boot/initramfs-3.3.4-5.fc17.x86_64.img

I am not sure if this is normal and a part of the updates or something else. Also, if it is a part of the update, would it be better for me to chose the Fedora.-3.5.1-1.fc17.x86_64 option?

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answered 2012-08-17 02:54:05 -0500

hhlp gravatar image

updated 2012-08-17 03:00:49 -0500

vmlinuz is the name of the Linux kernel executable.

A kernel is a program that constitutes the central core of a computer operating system. It is the first thing that is loaded into memory (which physically consists of RAM chips) when a computer is booted up (i.e., started), and it remains in memory for the entire time that the computer is in operation. An executable, also called an executable file, is a file that can be run as a program.

vmlinuz is a compressed Linux kernel, and it is bootable. Bootable means that it is capable of loading the operating system into memory so that the computer becomes usable and application programs can be run.

vmlinuz should not be confused with vmlinux, which is the kernel in a non-compressed and non-bootable form. vmlinux is generally just an intermediate step to producing vmlinuz.

vmlinuz is located in the /boot directory, which is the directory that contains the files needed to begin booting the system. The file named vmlinuz might be the actual kernel executable itself, or it could be a link to the kernel executable, which might bear a name such as /boot/vmlinuz-x.x.x (i.e., the name of the specific version of the kernel). This can be easily determined by using the ls command (whose purpose is to list the contents of a specified directory) with its -l option (which tells ls to provide detailed information about each object in the specified directory) as follows:

ls -l /boot

If vmlinuz is an ordinary file (including an executable), the information about it in the first column will begin with a hyphen. If it is a link, it will begin with the letter l.

initramfs is a root filesystem which is embedded into the kernel and loaded at an early stage of the boot process. It is the successor of initrd. It provides early userspace which lets you do things that the kernel can't easily do by itself during the boot process.

Using initramfs is optional. By default, the kernel initializes hardware using built-in drivers, mounts the specified root partition, loads the init system of the installed Linux distribution. The init system then loads additional modules and starts services until it finally allows you to log in. This is a good default behaviour and sufficient for many users. initramfs is for users with advanced requirements, for users who need to do things as early as possible, before the root partition is mounted.

Here are some examples of what you can do with initramfs:

  • Customize the boot process (e.g. print a welcome message, boot splash, ...)

  • Load modules (e.g. a third party driver that can not be integrated into the kernel directly)

  • Mount the root partition (for encrypted, logical, and otherwise special partitions)

  • Provide a minimalistic rescue shell (if something goes wrong)

  • Anything the kernel can't do (as long as you can do it in user space, e.g. by executing commands)

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answered 2012-08-19 20:35:24 -0500

davidva gravatar image

Fedora constantly updates the kernel, then older versions always appear in the grub, if you need erase old versions try it:

From terminal

su

package-cleanup --oldkernels  --count=1 -y

Or try PostInstallerF

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answered 2012-08-18 10:38:00 -0500

Ronald Andrade gravatar image

updated 2012-08-18 10:38:57 -0500

If you don't want to keep old kernels, You can erase them with Fedora Utils

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answered 2012-08-17 14:44:47 -0500

i) Enter /boot/grub2/ as root and modify grub.cfg (take a backup if your system doesn't create one automatically).

ii) To make your changes consistent enter /etc/grub.d/ as root and make changes there (be very careful- understand what you are doing; there's a readme file that you MUST read and understand). The readme file, if you can understand it, tells you even about theming your GRUB bootloader.

Caution: Use at your own risk!

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Asked: 2012-08-16 16:39:51 -0500

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Last updated: Aug 19 '12