If you use GNOME Settings to disable camera and/or microphone access in the Privacy tab, the setting doesn’t have the desired effect and applications can still use your camera and microphone.
The GNOME design for this panel assumes that all applications are installed via Flatpak, and it is unclear that this setting actually only applies to such applications.
Bugzilla report: #2018158
There is not a general setting that will disable camera or microphone access. Access control must be managed in each application separately.