There are, as far as I know, no such shortcuts because there’s no such feature in Mutter. Window snapping is to either the left or right half of the screen, and windows can be maximized any of horizontally, vertically, or both. But in all honestly I’ve never heard of anyone wanting to center a window horizontally, which seems like it would just leave you with underutilized space on both sides — I’d be surprised if the community demand for that feature comprises more than yourself and a handful of others, sorry to say. It may just be too esoteric a feature to be offered in the standard/baseline system. (Mutter, like all of the modern GNOME core, prioritizes simplicity over clutter and defaults over configurability. Arguably to a fault, but it is what it is.)
The option to maximize a window (only) vertically does exist, as I mentioned, and there’s a keyboard shortcut slot available to configure that action. I’ve always made a point of switching my Super+⭡ binding to be a maximize-vertically toggle, which I use all the time whenever I’m working in a terminal window and have a lot of output to scroll through. Like you, I have no use for full maximization and/or fullscreen, with the exception of VLC.